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How a 3D printer works

In 2018, printing a document or photo is as simple as hitting a button and the finished product arrives in seconds. But what happens when you add an extra dimension?

Over the last several years, 3D printing has exploded and you’ll find specialized machines at libraries, universities or even your local office supply store. Still, 3D printers haven’t matched the ubiquity of their 2D cousins and an ongoing debate over legalizing 3D printed guns is bringing the technology to a new audience.

Additive manufacturing — 3D printing by another name — was invented in the 1980s and today, there are a variety of different methods and classes of printers. With the right machinery, you can build an object with just about any material, from ceramic to copper to resin, though plastic is the most common, especially at the consumer level.

At the most basic level, it’s similar to regular printing, just imagine the machine pouring plastic in vertical layers instead of ink in horizontal lines.

“The whole idea of additive manufacturing is that you put things down a layer at a time,” said Edward Currie, associate professor of engineering at Hofstra University. “When you build a house, you put down the foundation and then you start putting up the bricks and the walls.”

Making a 3D model

Unlike a traditional 2D printer, 3D printers require special files known as blueprints that specify the dimensions for a 3D object.

A process called “slicing” follows the blueprint and divides 3D drawings into the layers that the printer will trace out.

“The technical knowledge side of it is coming up with the drawings. That’s where the real work is,” Currie said. “It’s like when you print a word document, you just hit print. What’s the hard part? It’s creating the document, same thing.”

There are three ways to get a computer assisted design file.

You can draw the object yourself, using CAD software to create a 3D digital model, or you can use someone else’s blueprints. You can also replicate an existing item by using a laser and scanning software to create a blueprint.

Waiting for results

To create the object, you just hit print. It’s as simple as it sounds. The rest of the work is for the printer to do, Currie said.

The printer works like an oversized glue gun, eating up spools of plastic filament.

“We start with material that’s pretty thick, and you pass it through a heated nozzle and you force it to come out,” Currie said. “Out the other side comes something thinner than a human hair.”

The printer’s computer sees the object as a series of points on a plane, according to Makerbot, one of the leading manufacturers of 3D printers.

The printer’s nozzle moves between these points, depositing plastic on a printer tray along the way.

The time required for printing depends on what the user is creating. A night vision goggle frame Currie designed took 56 hours.

The time required will depend on the size of the object, the desired quality of the finish and how solid it is — tighter infill patterns take longer than loose ones, a smoother finish takes longer than a rough one.

All done

The final result may be a solid object or parts that need to be put together.

The quality of printers varies significantly, which is an important consideration, Currie said.

3D printers are available for as little as a few hundred dollars and as much as hundreds of thousands. If exact dimensions are important to you — such as if you’re printing several objects that need to fit together like a puzzle — you’ll need a machine that’s much more expensive. Cheaper printers also can’t produce as smooth of a finish.

On Thursday, printers in Currie’s lab hummed for several hours, slowly building the latest version of wound closure clips. Once finished, magnets are attached.

The clips can be attached to either side of an open wound and the magnets will hold the wound together. A whole set can be used to close a wound more precisely than traditional stitches.

And if anything is not quite right with the clip, Currie just starts over. Traditionally, he’d have to request a new piece from the machine shop, which could take days or weeks. That’s the beauty of 3D printing, he said.

Deciding what to print

It’s a useful tool for creating prototypes and building models, Currie said. Jay Leno famously uses a 3D printer to replicate unavailable parts for restored cars so the parts can be custom manufactured.

In Currie’s lab, they’ve created dozens if not hundreds of versions of magnetic clips that can be used to help close open wounds, and other objects.

But uses are limited. Not every item is suited to be made from plastic — it’s fine for a robotic arm gear or a toy, but not practical for items that need to withstand high pressure or temperature. For example, experts said 3D printed plastic guns — which prosecutors say are illegal in New York state — are only durable enough for one or a few shots depending on the model, before they fall apart.

Read more about 3D printed guns here.

February jobless rates on Long Island

The overall unemployment rate for Long Island, not seasonally adjusted, was 5.1 percent in February 2018, up 0.3 percentage points from February 2017 according to the state’s Labor Department. Nassau’s rate increased 0.2 percentage points to 4.7 percent while Suffolk County’s rate also increased by 0.2 percentage points to 5.4 percent. By comparison, New York State’s rate was 5.1 percent and the national rate was 4.4 percent.

Freeport’s rate was down 0.3 percentage points, while Riverhead rose 0.7 percentage points. Click on the bar chart for details, or check on the tables below. You can read more here. Posted March 27, 2018.

Local jobless rates for February

Details on the monthly unemployment rates

FEBRUARY 2018Labor ForceEmployedUnemployedRate (%)
Nassau County691,900659,40032,6004.7
Freeport Village22,50021,1001,4006.0
Glen Cove City14,10013,2008005.9
Hempstead Town394,100374,80019,3004.9
Hempstead Village27,60025,6002,0007.2
Long Beach City19,40018,6008004.1
North Hempstead Town111,800106,8005,0004.5
Oyster Bay Town152,600145,9006,7004.4
Rockville Centre Village12,10011,6005004.2
Valley Stream Village19,20018,3009004.7
Suffolk County768,000726,30041,7005.4
Babylon Town109,800103,9005,9005.4
Brookhaven Town250,500237,40013,1005.2
Huntington Town102,80097,9004,9004.8
Islip Town176,000166,8009,2005.2
Lindenhurst Village14,90014,3007004.4
Riverhead Town16,10015,0001,2007.3
Smithtown Town58,90056,3002,6004.4
Southampton Town29,50027,2002,3007.7
New York City4,273,6004,087,300186,2004.4
New York State9,675,6009,179,100496,6005.1
JANUARY 2018Labor ForceEmployedUnemployedRate (%)
Nassau County696,200664,60031,6004.5
Freeport Village22,60021,3001,3005.9
Glen Cove City14,10013,3008005.7
Hempstead Town396,800377,80019,0004.8
Hempstead Village27,80025,8002,0007.3
Long Beach City19,50018,7008004.0
North Hempstead Town112,400107,7004,7004.2
Oyster Bay Town153,400147,1006,3004.1
Rockville Centre Village12,20011,7005004.3
Valley Stream Village19,30018,5009004.5
Suffolk County773,000732,30040,7005.3
Babylon Town110,500104,7005,7005.2
Brookhaven Town252,500239,40013,1005.2
Huntington Town103,40098,7004,7004.5
Islip Town177,100168,2009,0005.1
Lindenhurst Village15,10014,4007004.4
Riverhead Town16,20015,1001,1006.9
Smithtown Town59,20056,7002,5004.2
Southampton Town29,60027,4002,2007.3
New York City4,228,2004,034,800193,4004.6
New York State9,658,4009,163,900494,5005.1
FEBRUARY 2017Labor ForceEmployedUnemployedRate (%)
Nassau County695,300664,10031,2004.5
Freeport Village22,70021,3001,4006.3
Glen Cove City14,10013,3008005.7
Hempstead Town396,000377,50018,5004.7
Hempstead Village27,60025,8001,9006.7
Long Beach City19,50018,7008004.1
North Hempstead Town112,400107,6004,8004.3
Oyster Bay Town153,300147,0006,3004.1
Rockville Centre Village12,20011,7005004.1
Valley Stream Village19,40018,5009004.6
Suffolk County770,800731,00039,8005.2
Babylon Town110,300104,5005,7005.2
Brookhaven Town251,300238,90012,4004.9
Huntington Town103,30098,5004,8004.6
Islip Town176,900167,8009,0005.1
Lindenhurst Village15,10014,4007004.6
Riverhead Town16,10015,0001,1006.6
Smithtown Town59,10056,6002,4004.1
Southampton Town29,50027,4002,1007.2
New York City4,239,0004,027,200211,8005.0
New York State9,678,4009,168,700509,7005.3

Population estimates for Nassau and Suffolk

Suffolk County experienced a fourth year of population loss in 2017, down to 1,492,953, while Nassau’s population continued to rise, to 1,369,514, according to the latest annual estimates from the Census Bureau.

Here are details on the estimated population shift for each county; to temporarily remove one county from the chart, click on the county name in the legend below any chart.

You can read more here.

The overall population — Nassau is up and Suffolk is down

A closer look — the net changes for each county

People are leaving both counties, but more are doing so in Suffolk

Change in population from people who moved out of county or in from elsewhere in U.S.

The birth rate in Suffolk and Nassau was down

The average annual number of births per 1,000 population at midyear.

Interactive charts via amCharts.

The details on these and other measures

Figures from the charts, and additional material on migration, deaths, etc.

Population Est. 20101,341,9031,494,689
Population Est. 20111,347,4831,500,074
Population Est. 20121,352,1311,499,272
Population Est. 20131,356,4141,501,103
Population Est. 20141,360,7031,500,638
Population Est. 20151,362,8581,498,947
Population Est. 20161,365,8571,494,334
Population Est. 20171,369,5141,492,953
Poulation Change 20102,0371,489
Poulation Change 20115,5805,385
Poulation Change 20124,648-802
Poulation Change 20134,2831,831
Poulation Change 20144,289-465
Poulation Change 20152,155-1,691
Poulation Change 20162,999-4,613
Poulation Change 20173,657-1,381
Births 20103,7074,372
Births 201114,30416,465
Births 201214,17016,057
Births 201313,78115,617
Births 201414,23215,554
Births 201514,28315,788
Births 201614,33115,742
Births 201714,17615,513
Deaths 20102,6022,707
Deaths 201110,90511,576
Deaths 201210,74111,465
Deaths 201311,39411,946
Deaths 201410,58011,645
Deaths 201511,01511,943
Deaths 201610,99812,490
Deaths 201711,21812,780
Natural Increase 20101,1051,665
Natural Increase 20113,3994,889
Natural Increase 20123,4294,592
Natural Increase 20132,3873,671
Natural Increase 20143,6523,909
Natural Increase 20153,2683,845
Natural Increase 20163,3333,252
Natural Increase 20172,9582,733
Int’l. Migration 20108321,055
Int’l. Migration 20114,1944,434
Int’l. Migration 20124,4584,375
Int’l. Migration 20134,6034,255
Int’l. Migration 20144,7444,341
Int’l. Migration 20155,2074,784
Int’l. Migration 20165,3314,897
Int’l. Migration 20175,2804,867
Domestic Migration 2010283-1,141
Domestic Migration 2011-1,903-3,857
Domestic Migration 2012-3,146-9,851
Domestic Migration 2013-2,614-6,037
Domestic Migration 2014-4,026-8,723
Domestic Migration 2015-6,277-10,332
Domestic Migration 2016-5,663-12,777
Domestic Migration 2017-4,562-9,000
Net Migration 20101,115-86
Net Migration 20112,291577
Net Migration 20121,312-5,476
Net Migration 20131,989-1,782
Net Migration 2014718-4,382
Net Migration 2015-1,070-5,548
Net Migration 2016-332-7,880
Net Migration 2017718-4,133
Birth Rate 201110.63710.996
Birth Rate 201210.49810.707
Birth Rate 201310.17610.410
Birth Rate 201410.47610.363
Birth Rate 201510.48810.527
Birth Rate 201610.50410.518
Birth Rate 201710.36510.386
Death Rate 20118.1107.731
Death Rate 20127.9577.645
Death Rate 20138.4137.963
Death Rate 20147.7887.759
Death Rate 20158.0897.963
Death Rate 20168.0618.345
Death Rate 20178.2028.556

Long Island job levels in November

The total, non-farm sector job count on Long Island fell 900 to more than 1.353 million in November 2017 compared with a year earlier, according to the state Labor Department. Leading the declines were the trade, transportation and utilities sector, which was down 4,400 jobs; professional and business services, which fell by 4,000, and manufacturing, which fell by 2,000. Making up for some of the loss was the private educational and health services sector, which increased 8,600, and leisure and hospitality, which rose by 2,600 compared with October 2016. Click on the trend lines below for details on the 10 sectors going back to 1990. To eliminate some of the lines, click on the sector name in the color key. The table below gives details for the 2017 and 2016 levels, and you can see more Long Island economic indicators or read about the job trends.

Jobs in the 10 sectors on Long Island

More detailed breakdown of 2017 vs. 2016

Industry            (job levels in thousands)Nov. 2017Nov. 2016Change in year
TOTAL NONFARM1,353.11,354.0-0.1%
TOTAL PRIVATE1,152.41,153.2-0.1%
Total Goods Producing 146.8148.6-1.2%
   Construction, Natural Resources, Mining
         Specialty Trade Contractors 56.754.54.0%
      Durable Goods 38.039.7-4.3%
      Non-Durable Goods 31.732.0-0.9%
Total Service Providing1,206.31,205.40.1%
Total Private Service-Providing1,005.61,004.60.1%
   Trade, Transportation, and Utilities284.2288.6-1.5%
      Wholesale Trade 71.673.0-1.9%
         Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods 34.534.6-0.3%
         Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods
      Retail Trade 166.6170.7-2.4%
         Building Material and Garden Equipment 13.313.02.3%
         Food and Beverage Stores
            Grocery Stores 30.430.30.3%
         Health and Personal Care Stores 13.713.51.5%
         Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores 19.520.4-4.4%
         General Merchandise Stores 29.129.5-1.4%
            Department Stores 22.623.1-2.2%
      Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities
         Transportation and Warehousing
            Couriers and Messengers
         Broadcasting (except Internet)
   Financial Activities70.571.7-1.7%
      Finance and Insurance 53.053.1-0.2%
         Credit Intermediation and Related Activities 20.220.3-0.5%
            Depository Credit Intermediation 11.411.5-0.9%
         Insurance Carriers and Related Activities 26.026.6-2.3%
      Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 17.518.6-5.9%
         Real Estate 13.914.1-1.4%
   Professional and Business Services 177.1181.1-2.2%
      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services 81.980.71.5%
            Legal Services 17.318.8-8.0%
            Accounting, Tax Prep., Bookkpng., & Payroll Svcs. 14.714.05.0%
      Management of Companies and Enterprises 16.416.21.2%
      Admin. & Supp. and Waste Manage. & Remed. Svcs. 78.884.2-6.4%
   Education and Health Services275.7267.13.2%
      Educational Services 44.543.42.5%
      Health Care and Social Assistance 231.2223.73.4%
         Ambulatory Health Care Services 91.588.43.5%
         Hospitals 66.864.33.9%
         Nursing and Residential Care Facilities 35.434.13.8%
         Social Assistance 37.536.91.6%
   Leisure and Hospitality120.3117.72.2%
      Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation 21.819.114.1%
         Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries 16.114.610.3%
      Accommodation and Food Services 98.598.6-0.1%
         Food Services and Drinking Places 92.993.8-1.0%
   Other Services 59.359.20.2%
         Personal and Laundry Services 23.823.22.6%
Government 200.7200.80.0%
   Federal Government 15.916.3-2.5%
   State Government 25.325.30.0%
      State Government Education
      State Government Hospitals 1.31.4-7.1%
   Local Government 159.5159.20.2%
      Local Government Education 108.1107.50.6%
      Local Government Hospitals

The deductions many Long Islanders take on federal taxes

Nassau County ranks sixth in the nation and Suffolk is 15th in the percentage of home owners paying more than $10,000 in property taxes, according to Attom Data Solutions, a company that tracks real estate data. Roughly half the homes in Nassau and nearly a third of the homes in Suffolk surpass the $10,000 level for property taxes, one of the deductions being altered in the tax legislation before Congress.

Many of the counties that rank higher than Nassau or Suffolk have a smaller number of homes overall. Here’s how they break down.

Homes over or under the $10,000 property tax level

County, State$0 – $10,000Over $10,000Percent over $10,000
Westchester, NY45,294125,19073.4%
Luna, NM4,86110,69168.7%
Rockland, NY29,09043,62260.0%
Mathews, VA2,2332,66554.4%
New York, NY56,99563,02352.5%
NASSAU, NY172,745176,94650.6%
Bergen, NJ130,142126,09649.2%
Essex, NJ79,40174,54048.4%
Union, NJ73,49957,26043.8%
Morris, NJ93,83762,26939.9%
Passaic, NJ66,98443,49939.4%
Hunterdon, NJ27,42016,04236.9%
Somerset, NJ67,26139,16136.8%
Marin, CA50,01826,78134.9%
SUFFOLK, NY316,744155,59232.9%
Fairfield, CT177,99276,57330.1%
Santa Clara, CA300,693121,18628.7%
Lake, IL157,47661,16328.0%
Monmouth, NJ160,28958,85226.9%
Mercer, NJ82,99828,32825.4%

State and local tax deductions on LI by income bracket

More than 250,000 Long Islanders making between $100,000 and $200,000 take deductions on their federal returns for state and local taxes, according to data provided by the IRS. The average deduction taken in that income bracket is $17,868 in Nassau County and $16,786 in Suffolk County. That income group is the largest taking such deductions, although filers in other income brackets also take advantage of the deductions. (You can read more about what the new tax system might mean for Long Island home owners.

Taxpayers in general

While the $100,000 to $200,000 bracket was the largest for taking state and local deductions, the largest group overall for taxpayers on Long Island are those making up to $25,000 a year. (Not included in these charts and tables is a small percentage of tax filers (9,640 in Nassau and 7,670 in Suffolk), who had adjusted gross incomes of less than $1 and paid no tax.)

Property tax deductions

Nearly matching the breakdown on those taking state and local tax deductions, the largest group on Long Island taking property tax deductions on their federal returns is the $100,000 to $200,000 bracket.

Mortgage interest deductions

Again, nearly matching the breakdown on those taking state and local tax deductions, the largest group on Long Island taking mortgage interest deductions is also the $100,000 to $200,000 bracket.

Details on what people earn or deduct, on average, in each bracket

The category of state and local taxes includes state and local income tax, sales tax and real estate, or property taxes, as well as some smaller categories of tax.

Nassau average
Suffolk average
  $1 up to $25,000 212,040 $11,479 246,610 $11,988
  $25,000 under $50,000 124,030 $37,348 153,660 $37,075
  $50,000 under $75,000 89,460 $62,671 100,650 $62,466
  $75,000 under $100,000 66,900 $87,858 73,750 $87,800
  $100,000 under $200,000 137,430 $141,746 141,070 $139,762
  $200,000 or more 74,480 $585,426 53,410 $506,144
Nassau average
Suffolk average
All state and local tax
  $1 up to $25,000 21,550 $8,092 23,510 $7,130
  $25,000 under $50,000 39,620 $8,387 45,880 $7,769
  $50,000 under $75,000 49,420 $10,105 55,360 $9,474
  $75,000 under $100,000 49,870 $12,460 54,860 $11,749
  $100,000 under $200,000 126,570 $17,868 128,920 $16,786
  $200,000 or more 73,720 $63,987 52,810 $52,945
  All income brackets 360,750 $23,856 361,340 $18,413
State/local income tax    
  $1 up to $25,000 7,270 $1,885 8,460 $1,449
  $25,000 under $50,000 26,620 $1,975 31,180 $1,841
  $50,000 under $75,000 39,620 $3,199 44,680 $3,025
  $75,000 under $100,000 42,630 $4,557 46,720 $4,382
  $100,000 under $200,000 116,650 $7,909 118,080 $7,616
  $200,000 or more 72,010 $46,200 51,110 $38,623
  All income brackets 304,800 $15,213 300,230 $10,934
State/local general sales tax    
  $1 up to $25,000 12,550 $614 13,180 $707
  $25,000 under $50,000 11,950 $911 13,480 $1,181
  $50,000 under $75,000 9,110 $1,172 9,930 $1,393
  $75,000 under $100,000 6,710 $1,422 7,600 $1,601
  $100,000 under $200,000 9,180 $1,859 10,130 $2,083
  $200,000 or more 1,530 $2,940 1,560 $3,281
  All income brackets 51,030 $1,183 55,880 $1,386
Real estate tax    
  $1 up to $25,000 16,650 $9,020 18,150 $7,840
  $25,000 under $50,000 27,490 $9,514 33,540 $8,197
  $50,000 under $75,000 36,630 $9,651 43,920 $8,369
  $75,000 under $100,000 40,150 $10,203 47,090 $8,935
  $100,000 under $200,000 112,350 $11,563 118,640 $10,322
  $200,000 or more 69,530 $19,653 50,390 $16,028
  All income brackets 302,800 $12,683 311,730 $10,387
Mortgage interest    
  $1 up to $25,000 8,900 $7,270 10,920 $7,260
  $25,000 under $50,000 17,530 $7,810 23,730 $7,434
  $50,000 under $75,000 25,870 $8,077 33,510 $7,598
  $75,000 under $100,000 30,260 $8,722 37,810 $8,246
  $100,000 under $200,000 91,550 $10,340 101,070 $9,811
  $200,000 or more 55,410 $15,168 41,960 $14,077
  All income brackets 229,520 $10,725 249,000 $9,656

IRS data is for the 2015 tax year, the latest available. Attom data is for current year. JavaScript charts via amCharts.

What venture funds did for 10 startups with Long Island ties

Eight of the 10 Long Island affiliated companies that received $50,000 each from the Accelerate Long Island Seed Fund, matched by the the Long Island Emerging Technology Fund, went on to receive an additional $23.7 million in investment in recent years, although not evenly, according to data compiled by Newsday reporter James T. Madore.

Codagenix Inc. of Farmingdale, a vaccine maker, received the most additional money, $11.6 million, while one company received less than $250,000. You can read more about the investments here.

Investments in 10 new companies with ties to Long Island

Details on the companies

The institutions affiliated with these companies are Stony Brook University (SBU), Cold Spring Harbor Lab (CSHL), Northwell Health and Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). Additional investments are as of 12/1/2017. This data posted on Dec. 15, 2017.

Company name (location)What they do (Institution affiliation)FoundedTime of ALI/LIETF investmentInvestment by ALI and LIETFAdditional investmentsJobs at time of ALI/LIETF investmentJobs as of 12/1/17
Codagenix Inc. (Farmingdale)Vaccines (SBU)20122014$100,000 $11,600,000 28
DepYmed (Farmingdale)Drugs (CSHL/Northwell)20142015$100,000 $2,037,000 11
Envisagenics Inc. (Manhattan)Software for drug development (CSHL)20142015$100,000 $3,442,000 28
Goddard Labs Inc. (Manhattan)Food testing/consulting and research services (SBU)20112014$100,000 $0 11
PolyNova CardioVascular Inc. (Stony Brook)Prosthetic heart value (SBU)20122014$100,000 $245,000 10
Scannerside/Right Dose Inc. (Port Washington)Software for monitoring radiation dosages (SBU)20112015$100,000 $0 13
Green Sulfcrete LLC (Melville)Concrete made from recycled sulfur (BNL)20122014$100,000 $1,833,000 33
Symbiotic Health Inc. (Roslyn Heights)Drugs (Northwell)20132015$100,000 $850,000 22
SynchroPET Inc. (Stony Brook)Scanners (BNL)20112014$100,000 $1,160,000 18
Traverse Biosciences Inc. (Stony Brook)Drugs (SBU)20132014$100,000 $2,525,000 11

Census data on speaking English, ancestry and getting to work

Census data indicate that fewer Long Islanders are speaking English at home, or speaking it well, that some ancestry groups are declining, and that it’s taking everyone on Long Island and in the greater New York area longer on average to commute to and from work.

Those are among the findings about life on Long Island from one-year and five-year data from the American Community Survey compared to the previous periods. After checking the charts below you can read about Long Island’s Census data.

Fewer speaking English at home, or well

The Census for years has been illustrating changes in Long Island’s population. One indicator in the newest data is the percentage of people age 5 and older not speaking English at home — 21.1 percent nationally from 2012-2016, up from 20.3 percent from 2007-2011. Here are the percentages for Nassau and Suffolk, which have margins of error of 0.2 or 0.3 percentage points, indicated by the small brackets at the top of each bar.

Smaller percentages for top three European ancestry groups

Residents who reported ancestry from Italy, Ireland and German have long had the highest percentages on Long Island, but all three saw smaller numbers in the 2012-2016 Census data.

And the daily commute gets longer

One-year data from the American Community Survey shows that the commute to and from work has been taking consistently longer for Long Islanders and for people throughout the New York area. Nationally the average is 26.1 minutes. The times charted here have a margin of error of 0.1 or 0.2 of a minute. In the chart on the right are the commuting methods most often claimed for 2012-16: driving alone, public transportation or carpooling. These statistics have a margin of error of 0.2 to 0.4 percentage points.

JavaScript charts via amCharts.

New York’s oyster and bay scallop harvests

A boom in bay scallops this season, which began Nov. 6, is boosting the East End’s shellfishing industry, participants say. This follows strong harvests in recent years for bay scallops and oysters, especially 2014. Here are annual harvest data for oysters and bay scallops for all New York, which primarily involves Long Island waters, from 2008 to 2016. And you can read more about the shellfish trend here.

Details on the bay scallop and oyster harvests

YearOyster bushelsOyster valuePounds of bay scallopsValue of bay scallops

Data provided by the New York State Department of Conservation. The oyster figures include a category grown for seed, in addition to those harvested for consumption. JavaScript charts powered by amCharts.

Long Island unemployment levels for October

The overall unemployment rate on Long Island for October 2017 was 4.1 percent, matching the rate from October 2016, according to data from the state’s Department of Labor. Valley Stream saw the largest increase in Nassau County, rising to 4.6 from the 4.3 rate in October 2016. Riverhead during that period rose to 4.3 from 4.1.

Freeport had the highest rate on the Island, 4.8 percent, which was down 0.1 percentage points from last year. New York City had a rate of 4.9 percent while the state had a rate of 4.6 percent, according to the labor department. Click on the bar chart for details, or check on the tables below. And you can read more here.

Local jobless rates for October

Details on the monthly unemployment rates

October 2017Labor ForceEmployedUnemployedRate (%)
Nassau County703,500675,20028,3004.0
Freeport Village22,80021,7001,1004.8
Glen Cove City14,10013,6005003.5
Hempstead Town401,100384,20016,9004.2
Hempstead Village27,50026,2001,3004.7
Long Beach City19,70018,9007003.7
North Hempstead Town113,300109,1004,1003.7
Oyster Bay Town155,400149,4006,1003.9
Rockville Centre Village12,20011,7005004.2
Valley Stream Village19,80018,9009004.6
Suffolk County780,700747,80032,9004.2
Babylon Town112,200107,1005,1004.5
Brookhaven Town255,200244,30010,9004.3
Huntington Town104,900100,8004,1003.9
Islip Town179,500171,9007,6004.2
Lindenhurst Village15,40014,7007004.3
Riverhead Town16,10015,4007004.3
Smithtown Town60,30058,0002,4003.9
Southampton Town29,00027,9001,1003.8
New York City4,251,5004,043,200208,3004.9
New York State9,712,1009,262,900449,2004.6
September 2017Labor ForceEmployedUnemployedRate (%)
Nassau County708,100678,70029,4004.1
Freeport Village22,80021,8001,1004.6
Glen Cove City14,20013,6005003.8
Hempstead Town403,600386,20017,4004.3
Hempstead Village27,70026,4001,4004.9
Long Beach City19,80019,0008003.9
North Hempstead Town114,100109,7004,4003.9
Oyster Bay Town156,400150,1006,2004.0
Rockville Centre Village12,20011,7005004.2
Valley Stream Village19,90019,0009004.6
Suffolk County785,400751,70033,6004.3
Babylon Town113,100107,7005,4004.7
Brookhaven Town256,700245,60011,1004.3
Huntington Town105,600101,3004,3004.0
Islip Town180,600172,8007,8004.3
Lindenhurst Village15,50014,8007004.6
Riverhead Town16,20015,4007004.4
Smithtown Town60,70058,3002,5004.0
Southampton Town29,10028,0001,1003.8
New York City4,258,1004,045,300212,7005.0
New York State9,738,5009,277,500461,0004.7
October 2016Labor ForceEmployedUnemployedRate (%)
Nassau County695,200667,80027,3003.9
Freeport Village22,50021,4001,1004.9
Glen Cove City13,90013,4005003.6
Hempstead Town396,300380,00016,3004.1
Hempstead Village27,20025,9001,3004.8
Long Beach City19,50018,7008003.9
North Hempstead Town112,100108,0004,1003.7
Oyster Bay Town153,400147,7005,7003.7
Rockville Centre Village12,00011,5005004.0
Valley Stream Village19,50018,7008004.3
Suffolk County772,000739,60032,3004.2
Babylon Town111,100106,0005,2004.6
Brookhaven Town252,400241,60010,8004.3
Huntington Town103,60099,7003,9003.8
Islip Town177,400170,0007,4004.2
Lindenhurst Village15,20014,6007004.3
Riverhead Town15,90015,2007004.1
Smithtown Town59,60057,3002,3003.8
Southampton Town28,70027,6001,1004.0
New York City4,138,4003,921,200217,2005.2
New York State9,548,0009,092,900455,1004.8

Long Island job levels in October

The total, non-farm sector job count on Long Island rose by 4,200 to more than 1.35 million in October 2017 compared with a year earlier, according to the state’s Labor Department. Leading the increases were the private educational and health services sector, which rose by 9,900, and leisure and hospitality, which rose by 1,500 compared with October 2016. The professional and business-services sector lost the most jobs, down 3,000, while manufacturing lost 2,300 jobs. Click on the trend lines below for details on the 10 sectors going back to 1990. To eliminate some of the lines, click on the sector name in the color key. The table below gives details for the 2017 and 2016 levels, and you can read more about the employment trends here.

Jobs in the 10 sectors on Long Island

More detailed breakdown of 2017 vs. 2016

Industry            (job levels in thousands)Oct. 2017Oct. 2016Pct Year
TOTAL NONFARM1,351.01,346.80.3%
TOTAL PRIVATE1,151.41,147.30.4%
Total Goods Producing 148.0150.5-1.7%
   Construction, Natural Resources, Mining 77.978.1-0.3%
         Specialty Trade Contractors 56.754.63.8%
      Durable Goods 38.340.3-5.0%
      Non-Durable Goods 31.832.1-0.9%
Total Service Providing1,203.01,196.30.6%
Total Private Service-Providing1,003.4996.80.7%
   Trade, Transportation, and Utilities276.9279.7-1.0%
      Wholesale Trade 71.071.5-0.7%
         Merchant Wholesalers, Durable Goods 34.134.4-0.9%
         Merchant Wholesalers, Nondurable Goods
      Retail Trade 160.2165.0-2.9%
         Building Material and Garden Equipment
         Food and Beverage Stores 36.736.60.3%
            Grocery Stores 30.230.3-0.3%
         Health and Personal Care Stores 13.413.30.8%
         Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores 18.019.2-6.3%
         General Merchandise Stores 27.426.91.9%
            Department Stores 20.820.80.0%
      Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities 45.743.25.8%
         Transportation and Warehousing 40.938.46.5%
            Couriers and Messengers 5.55.6-1.8%
         Broadcasting (except Internet)
   Financial Activities71.971.21.0%
      Finance and Insurance 53.952.62.5%
         Credit Intermediation and Related Activities 20.620.41.0%
            Depository Credit Intermediation 11.711.60.9%
         Insurance Carriers and Related Activities 26.126.7-2.2%
      Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 18.018.6-3.2%
         Real Estate 14.314.11.4%
   Professional and Business Services 176.5179.5-1.7%
      Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services 82.381.11.5%
            Legal Services 17.518.5-5.4%
            Accounting, Tax Prep., Bookkpng., & Payroll Svcs. 14.313.83.6%
      Management of Companies and Enterprises 16.416.30.6%
      Admin. & Supp. and Waste Manage. & Remed. Svcs. 77.882.1-5.2%
   Education and Health Services274.9265.03.7%
      Educational Services 43.842.82.3%
      Health Care and Social Assistance 231.1222.24.0%
         Ambulatory Health Care Services 91.387.64.2%
         Hospitals 66.964.34.0%
         Nursing and Residential Care Facilities 35.433.84.7%
         Social Assistance 37.536.52.7%
   Leisure and Hospitality124.8123.31.2%
      Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation 24.922.411.2%
         Amusement, Gambling, and Recreation Industries 18.617.09.4%
      Accommodation and Food Services 99.9100.9-1.0%
         Food Services and Drinking Places 94.195.8-1.8%
   Other Services 59.558.81.2%
         Personal and Laundry Services
Government 199.6199.50.1%
   Federal Government 15.916.2-1.9%
   State Government 25.525.40.4%
      State Government Education
      State Government Hospitals 1.31.4-7.1%
   Local Government 158.2157.90.2%
      Local Government Education 106.4105.60.8%
      Local Government Hospitals