Long Island students in 2018 science competition

Long Island is home to 46 of the 300 high school students nationwide who reached the scholars level of the Regeneron Science Talent Search for 2018. More than 1,800 students entered the competition, formerly run by Intel, and more than a third of the scholars were from New York State. The 300 were narrowed down on Jan. 23 to 40 finalists, including Andrew Fang and Chiu Fan Bowen Lo of Jericho High School, who will compete in Washington, D.C. Here are details on the 106 students from New York, listed by region and then by school, with Long Island at the top, followed by 30 students from New York City and then 30 more from the rest of New York State. One Long Island student attends school in New Jersey.

You can read more about the Regeneron scholars here. This database was updated on Jan. 23, 2018.

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Name Gender School name School city Category Project title Summary
Name Smiti Shah Gender Female School name Bethpage Senior High School School city Bethpage Category Environmental Science Project title Efficient Nano-Based Water Filter: A Novel Application of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles (AgNP) and Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Ink with Applied Electrical Current Summary Nearly 1/7th of the world's population lacks access to clean water, and 6-8 million people die annually due to water-borne illnesses. There are many proposals to aid water crises, but none incorporate self-cleaning, cheap, and portable solutions. My project developed a method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles with biological agents, including coriander extract, which is 2000x cheaper than existing chemical-physical synthesis. Additionally, by-products are human/environmentally friendly. Furthermore, I developed a Carbon Nanotube Ink using ultrasonication as opposed to cloud-vessel reaction chambers, which are expensive and energy intensive. Combining the methods, I layered ink and silver nanoparticles onto cotton-balls, and passed an electric current through the system while pouring water infused with E. coli through the system. I found a significant reduction in the E. coli concentration in treated water. This proof-of-concept allows electricity to degrade contaminants on the filter, creating a self-cleaning, cheap (USD $0.001), portable filter device.
Name Daniel Lee Gender Male School name Commack High School School city Commack Category Engineering Project title Sensor-Network-based Deep Learning Model for Wind Field Estimation Summary Solar energy remains amongst the fastest growing and most promising sources for clean energy due to its abundance and decreased installation costs. However, solar farms experience large power output fluctuations depending on cloud coverage, which can place significant stress on entire electric grids. Therefore, reliable solar power output forecasting is essential to support power grid operations. Accurate wind fields, cloud movement direction and speed, can greatly improve state-of-the-art solar power output forecasting models. Current wind field estimation models are unstable and require expensive instrumentation. To overcome these problems, I developed a robust, cost-effective novel solar irradiance sensor-network-based deep learning architecture, WFnet. WFnet was trained using sensor data simulated to mimic real life situations when wind field speeds range from 0m/s-12m/s. Relative to previous wind field estimation algorithms, WFnet reduced errors by up to a factor of four, indicating its promising potential for practical application to solar farms.
Name Anoop Singh Gender N/A School name Commack High School School city Commack Category Earth and Planetary Project title An Multilinear Approach to Forecasting the El Nino Southern Oscillation Summary Climate change impacts all people living on the Earth. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a system which influences the climate around the globe. For this reason, it would be helpful to create a procedure for predicting ENSO each year, allowing the population to understand potential climate in their area, months in advance, and prepare for it. This study developed a procedure to create predictions of ENSO every year. This procedure is simple, using basic statistics and computer science to create forecasts as accurate as those currently existing. Additionally, the study helped specify the relationship between the pressure systems surrounding the Pacific and El Niño, assisting in creating stronger predictions and allowing us to better understand ENSO.
Name Justin Ng Gender Male School name George W. Hewlett High School School city Hewlett Category Plant Sciences Project title A Haloacid-Dehalogenase-Like Hydrolase Regulates Cell Elongation in Prothallial Cells from Gametophytes of Ceratopteris richardii During Cold Stress. Summary Much of our food and produce comes from various crops, such as wheat and citrus. One of the biggest threats to crop production is abnormal climate conditions, such as cold temperatures. A plant's resistance to cold stress is dependent on the type of genes present in its genome. It is also dependent on the expression of specific genes and interactions with each other during cold stress. This project is about one gene, AT2G41250, in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that may play a role in cold tolerance. The gene, however, remains to be characterized in seed plants or in seedless plant. This study is the first to attribute a function to this gene and shows how it may allow the plant to tolerate cold stress. The gene is found to promote cell elongation while under cold stress during the reproductive stage, indicating it may play a role in early plant development.
Name Winnie Xu Gender Female School name George W. Hewlett High School School city Hewlett Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title The Paradox of Vulnerability: An Examination of Vulnerability Expression on Adolescent Stress and Self-Esteem Summary In today's society, the term (vulnerability) holds a negative connotation that is commonly associated with weakness. Many adolescents pretend to be invulnerable to avoid appearing weak in front of their peers. However, as shown in this study, the expression of vulnerability can in fact reduce an adolescent's levels of stress and promote their self-esteem. By allowing themselves to express vulnerability, adolescents are more open to trying different activities, forming new relationships, and asking for help when they need it. The recognition of vulnerability stands against peer pressure, conformity, and shame. In fact, its expression empowers an adolescent and can offer many benefits. It is important for adolescents to understand these benefits as they will be more willing to express their vulnerability.
Name Aditi Patil Gender Female School name Half Hollow Hills East High School School city East Dix Hills Category Environmental Science Project title Analyzing the Accuracy of Sea-Level Predictability at Various Temporal Scales Summary The International Panel on Climate Change states that by 2100, sea level will rise by 1 meter, but ocean systems are always changing and sea level rise varies between locations. In order to estimate how sea level will change in the future, we looked at ocean dynamics and change in heights of sea level over the last 25 years from the Atlantic Coast. Graphs were plotted of the two data sets from 1992 to the present, establishing the time period -- broken down into one-, two-, and five-year time scales -- that we're concerned about regarding sea level rise. We determined that sea level rise is not accurately predicted with time scales under five years and we cannot make accurate predictions about sea level rise for the near future. Scientists should determine better models of measuring sea level, or there are dangerous impacts of natural disasters and social/economic damage to millions of people.
Name Gilbert Spencer Gender Male School name Half Hollow Hills High School West School city Dix Hills Category Environmental Science Project title A Novel Method to Deconvolute the Ice Core Record of Carbon Dioxide Summary Ice cores contain remnants of air from the past trapped within small bubbles inside of the ice sheets in Antarctica. They can be studied to understand what the earth used to be like, and knowing the past helps tremendously in predicting the future, which is why ice core data is key to understanding climate change. Unfortunately, air takes a while to become trapped in ice, which means it is exposed to and mixes with new air. There can be thousands of years of air trapped inside of each bubble, yet it is still assigned one year. Currently, there are no solutions to this problem, which is why I created a model that inverts the natural processes to determine the true, yearly values of CO2. The record of CO2 has been extended further into the past, which provides insight into Earth's historical climate and can help us understand atmospheric processes.
Name Mutahara Bhuiyan Gender Female School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Environmental Science Project title Sustainability in water treatment: Heavy metal remediation via nitro-oxidized carboxycellulose nanofibers Summary Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are highly reputed as effective adsorbents for water treatment, yet CNF production is long and energy-consumptive. This project investigates the viability of CNF prepared through the novel, sustainable method of HNO3/NaNO2 oxidation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) showed the disappearance of lignin and hemicellulose and appearance of carboxyl, while conductometric titration elucidated 1.1 mmol/g carboxyl content, thus confirming nitro-oxidation. Through batch testing, Cu(II) removal capacity was shown to be triple current standards, with similar capacity in mixtures, which increased with adsorbate concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance -- Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) revealed increasing Cu amounts (P<.001) and a COO-peak shift from pre- to post-removal CNF, thus confirming adsorption. Agreement with Freundlich isotherm (R2 = .9364) indicates multilayer adsorption. Future investigations include determining removal of other pollutants, regeneration, and optimizing nitro-oxidation for implementation into filtration systems.
Name Andrew Fang Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Medicine and Health Project title Artemisinin as a potential Parkinson's disease treatment via alleviation of alpha-synuclein mediated neuronal damage and inflammation Summary Over the last few decades, Parkinson's disease (PD) therapies have failed to improve significantly given their inability to address disease progression. Consequently, PD symptoms grow worse over time whether treatment is administered or not. To address this gap, we investigated the ability of artemisinin (ART) to treat PD given its demonstrated ability to diminish inflammation and improve neuron function in other diseases. We tested artemisinin against alpha-synuclein (alpha-S), the protein responsible for PD, and found that artemisinin reversed alpha-S-induced neuron death and damage, reduced gastrointestinal inflammation, and decreased expression of inflammatory signaling molecules. Furthermore, ART was able to improve the survival and physical fitness of Drosophila fruit flies with PD, lending support for ART as a treatment in an animal model. Further research is still warranted to elucidate how ART exercises its effects and to test ART's potential in animals more representative of humans, such as mice.
Name Ishan Gurnani Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Engineering Project title A novel piezoelectric sensor for continuous monitoring of sodium concentrations in sweat Summary Perspiration in athletes results in sodium imbalances, which can cause cardiac and neurological problems. Therefore, a tool for continuously monitoring sodium levels must be developed. Current techniques utilize a single sample of bodily fluids, and must be handled in a laboratory. Recent sensor developments evaluate sodium in sweat, but are flawed since the require pilocarpine iontophoresis, which can cause severe burns. Therefore, this study proposed a novel sensor that uses the electrolytic conductivity of sodium to accelerate a piezoelectric cantilever beam. Through evaluations under varying body conditions sweat volume, sweat rate, and temperature, only temperature decreased sensor accuracy. Further, a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) sensor was deemed more viable than a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) sensor based off of mechanical responses. When sensor size has been reduced and methods for monitoring other analytes have been elucidated, this sensor can be applied to assist athletes in early diagnosis of potential complications.
Name Marc Huo Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title Circumventing bottlenecks in RNAi-based therapeutics: pHsensitive transferrin bound siACSL5-loaded nanoparticles Summary Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a considerably poor prognosis of 12-15 months. Gene vectors present a novel therapeutic system but suffers from poor in-vivo bench-to-bedside translation due to conventional bottlenecks such as the blood brain barrier and endosomal entrapment. As a result, an ultra-pH polymeric nanoplatform was developed to stabilize siRNA, enhance delivery to target tumor sites, and trigger tumor-responsive release to reduce side effects of treatment. Novel siACSL5 was also encapsulated within PDPA nanoparticles to efficaciously silence glioma proliferation and survival via forked pathway knockdown with tumor-promoting genes. The introduction of the proposed proof-of-concept nanocomplex into clinical consideration brings about a bio-compatible, tumor-specific, and non-immunogenic delivery paradigm for cancer therapy.
Name Chiu Fan Bowen Lo Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Physics Project title Near-Field Nanoscopy Simulation by Incorporating Harmonic Demodulation and Cone-Shaped Probing Tip Summary Infrared light is technologically important for biomedical imaging, electronics characterizations, and chemical identification. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) shatters the diffraction limit and provides a resolution of under tens of nanometers. I developed a novel simulation model to predict s-SNOM measurements, addressing limitations in previous computational studies by taking into consideration both realistic shape of the s-SNOM probing tip and the signal extraction procedure. The versatility of the simulation was demonstrated by investigating silica, sapphire, and gold nanostructure. The simulated optimal angle of incidence for the maximum near-field signal was determined to be 55-60 degrees. The simulation model was more accurate than a conventional analytical model in predicting sapphire's phonon resonance frequencies. In the gold nanostructure model, signal contrast between gold and sapphire was demonstrated. An unprecedented simulated resolution of 30 nm was demonstrated. This novel simulation model may serve as a testing ground for future nano-device designs.
Name Dennis Lo Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title A novel computerized phenotype-oriented algorithm for asthma diagnostics Summary Physicians in the US currently rely on primarily two guidelines for asthma diagnostics: the EPR-3 and GINA report. A shortcoming in the guidelines, however, is the subjectivity of determining disease severity based on patient-specific factors. Due to the heterogeneity of asthma, it is necessary to clarify bounds for phenotyping patients. Meta-synthesis was performed after systematic review in the PubMed database to determine bounds for phenotyping. A computerized algorithm was designed based on parameters compiled from the meta-synthesis. The EPR-3-, GINA report-, and meta-synthesis-based algorithms were compared with respect to therapy recommendation. The meta-synthesis-based algorithm recommended targeted therapy such as anti-IL-5 for the eosinophilic phenotype when compared to the EPR-3 and GINA algorithms' recommended inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting Beta-agonist, suggesting the potential for personalizing clinical decisions. In the future, the meta-synthesis-based algorithm may present advantages over conventional clinical decision support systems in recommending targeted therapy and reducing variability of asthma diagnostics.
Name Swati Madankumar Gender Female School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title Magnesium Deficiency Promotes Survival and Motility of Colon Cancer Cells Summary The bio-molecular effects of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on the migratory potential of colon cancer cells were investigated. Using oxidative stress assay and qPCR, it was found that Mg deficiency increases oxidative stress (p<0.001) and modulates the mRNA expression of biomarkers enhancing survival, growth, and motile properties in colon cancer cells for the acquisition of an invasive phenotype. Using Western blot, calcium (Ca) assay, and scratch cell migration assay, it was found that Mg deficiency increases intracellular Ca levels (p<0.001) to modulate intracellular migratory protein interactions and p53 tumor suppressor protein degradation for successful cancer cell migration. The potential for optimizing Mg intake in cancer patients to reverse the harms of Mg deficiency in colon cancer metastasis was demonstrated, as it was found that Mg uptake does not compromise the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy and also protects non-cancerous cell viability during cisplatin treatment.
Name Amber Patrick Gender Female School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Medicine and Health Project title Profiling the transfusion dependent immunology of T-cells in sickle cell disease alloimmunization Summary Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects upwards of 100,000 Americans, with the only widely available treatment being blood transfusions. Hundreds of possible antigens on the surface of red blood cells cause alloimmunization, a prevalent condition that occurs in 20-50% of transfused SCD patients. Alloimmunized patients experience a hyperimmune response where the body targets the foreign antigens, causing symptoms including heart attack, stroke, and death. This project profiles the immunology of SCD patients before and after transfusion to characterize alloimmunization and identify a biomarker of the condition. Significant differences between untransfused and transfused alloimmunized patients were identified for killer T-cells, helper T-cells, and follicular regulatory T-cells. In the future, the potential for free heme to activate an immune response should be investigated. Additionally, the impact of racially distinct transfusions on alloimmunization likelihood should be further explored. Overall, a novel step has been taken towards elucidating the alloimmunization mechanism in SCD patients.
Name Yunyan Wu Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Medicine and Health Project title Ciliogenesis Facilitated by Ciliopathy Genes Wdpcp and Rpgrip1l: A Requirement for Hair Follicle Development Summary Current understanding of ciliopathies, the developmental disorders caused by defective cilia, which affect an estimated 7 million people, is limited. Skin morphogenesis is an indicator of the ciliopathy genes that play a role in cilia formation and embryonic development. Two of the less-investigated genes are Wdpcp and Rpgrip1l. This study investigated the roles of these two genes in skin cilia formation and development. Two types of staining were performed to examine the embryonic skin morphology with gene knockout. Online databases were used to gain additional information of the genes. Both Wdpcp and Rpgrip1l were essential for cilia formation and hair follicle development, but not the initiation of hair follicles. Online data mining showed no known molecular interactions between the two genes but showed similar participation in biological processes and distinct expression levels in particular cell types. This study gave insights into ciliopathy mechanisms and potentially hair loss and wound healing.
Name Brandon Xie Gender Male School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Environmental Science Project title Dual Function Materials for CO2 capture and synthetic fuel production Summary The growing world population has increased energy demand that will aggravate the effects of global warming, such as recent hurricanes. This study optimized a Dual Function Material(DFM) system consisting of an adsorbent and catalyst to simultaneously capture and convert CO2 to natural gas(CH4). Alkali metal and alkaline earth metal-based materials were examined as adsorbents; combinations of Rh, Pt, Ru, and Ni were optimized as methanation catalysts. Incipient wetness impregnation(IW) and adsorption-precipitation(AP) were compared for optimal catalyst preparation. Adsorption capacities of the adsorbents/DFMs and reduction behaviors of the catalysts were analyzed with Thermogravimetric Analysis. Methanation capacity of the DFMs was analyzed by ChemBET Pulsar and Enerac emissions analyzer. NaCH3COO was the most efficient adsorbent while bimetallic 5% Ru 10% Ni was the most effective catalyst. The Ru prepared from AP showed higher activity than that from IW. These results would help develop DFMs significantly decrease CO2 emissions and secure energy sources.
Name Kendra Zhang Gender Female School name Jericho High School School city Jericho Category Environmental Science Project title Paper-based microbial fuel cells for self-powered sustainable disease monitoring Summary Diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) are three of the most widespread, fastest-growing, and expensive-to-diagnose diseases today. In my project, I developed a system of inexpensive, environmentally-friendly paper-based microbial fuel cell devices to diagnose biomarkers of diabetes, CKD, and CHD found in saliva. The device is used by spitting onto it to allow bacteria to feed on salivary biomarkers, then connecting it to a voltmeter to read a voltage output. My devices have an over 99% accuracy rate to detect biomarkers of each disease. Overall, my study's saliva-based testing minimizes blood-based testing complications such as pain and pathogen-spreading. Additionally, each single-use device costs $0.15 each and requires a reusable $2 voltmeter to read voltage output --100x less expensive than current technologies. Finally, this study opens the door for fuel cells, a technology traditionally used in environmental engineering disciplines, to be further introduced into biomedical applications.
Name Matthew Klein Gender Male School name John F. Kennedy High School School city Bellmore Category Space Science Project title Galaxy Cluster Assembly and Ignition of Active Galactic Nuclei Summary Galaxy clusters are the largest structures in the known universe. They form through the gravitational assembly of smaller systems of galaxies. Gauging the evolutionary history of clusters is essential to understand the basic properties of the universe (i.e. dark matter, dark energy, age, etc.). Over 80 clusters were included in the sample, each containing 200-300 galaxy sources, to determine if there was a correlation between infalling galaxies and active galactic nuclei within a cluster. Cluster dynamics are typically accessed by time intensive observations. These dynamics are believed to be a cause of an influx of gas falling into black holes and activating them. This causes the emission of radio sources, which requires less time to observe. This study has found a slight negative correlation between these galactic phenomena which shows that this created a more efficient method of observing infalling galaxies within clusters.
Name Cameron Levy Gender Male School name John F. Kennedy High School School city Bellmore Category Animal Sciences Project title An Analysis of the Interactions Among the Histone Deacytylase Sir2, TOR Signaling, and the Heat Shock Response Instigator Heat Shock Factor 1 Summary Treatments have been observed to minimize the harmful effects of stressors including thermal stress, aging related oxidative stress, and disease. Inhibition of the nutrient-sensing pathway and increases in the expression of protective proteins induce these stress-shielding phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. The drug resveratrol has been shown to extend lifespan, but its effects on stress resistance are unknown. The present study investigates the protective effects of resveratrol, the interactions between pharmacological and genetic inhibition of the nutrient-signaling pathway and resveratrol administration, and the role of the heat shock response in modulating resveratrol's beneficial effects. Data suggests that the nutrient-sensing pathway and the target enzyme of resveratrol, Sir2, operate in a common pathway to produce stress resistance. It also showed an interaction between Sir2 and the innate stress response. This study has implications in the development of treatments that can increase resistance to a broad range of stressors, including aging and disease.
Name Natasha Dilamani Gender Female School name J. L. Miller Great Neck North High School School city Great Neck Category Engineering Project title Typing Without Touch: A Touchscreen Accessible Device for the Visually Impaired Summary A very limited number of glove-like devices have been created to enable the visually impaired to type on touchscreen devices, but they either require a hard surface for the user to press on, or require the user to learn a new set of gestures for typing on the device. Since Bluetooth and screen reading software already exist, and can be incorporated into a commercial product, the goal of this project was to create a convenient sensory glove that enables blind people to create alpha-numeric characters through the motion of their fingers in mid-air. The device served as a Braille keyboard, comprised of flex sensors under each finger. When a sensor is flexed, it accompanies an increase in resistance that is interpreted by an Arduino microprocessor and converted into a character. Between two blind subjects who tested the gloves with limited training, the device yielded 89% accuracy.
Name Amy Shteyman Gender Female School name J. L. Miller Great Neck North High School School city Great Neck Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title The Language of Facial Expressions: a Neuroimaging Study of How a Smile is Generated and Perceived by Another Person Summary A smile is critical in communication. A lack of smiling can be symptomatic of autism, depression, and schizophrenia. This experiment investigated the difference between brain activity while a person smiles in an interaction with another person and the brain activity while a person smiles from a non-human stimulus. Brain activity of pairs of subjects was recorded with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while a facial classification device measured the strengths of their smiles. Participants alternated between viewing 'cute' animal videos and the face of their partner sitting across from them. Results showed even though both subjects smiled, smiling from watching a partner smile exhibited brain activity in social brain areas like Wernicke's and Broca's areas, and the temporal gyrus. Smiling from watching videos displayed brain activity in brain areas responsible for movement. These findings indicate that social smiles activate a separate system of brain activity that of smiles engendered by non-human stimuli.
Name Megan Xu Gender Female School name J. L. Miller Great Neck North High School School city Great Neck Category Earth and Planetary Project title Taphonomy of Neoproterozoic Organic-walled Microfossils: the relationship between total organic carbon and presentation quality Summary Imagine ancient oceans filled with microscopic early lifeforms, dating back to the Neoproterozoic Era (c. 1000-541 million years ago). Some of these microorganisms preserved as organic-walled microfossils (OWMs). OWMs consist of the original organic matter of these really tiny, really old fossils. To investigate how OWMs were preserved, my project tests a hypothesis that suggests that an environmental factor, total organic carbon (TOC) has a negative impact on preservation. Using an adapted protocol, I rated fossils on five traits, three of which were closely related to preservation. A significant relationship between the absence of fossils and TOC was discovered, as well as significant negative relationships between two of the traits and TOC. The protocol used in study may be implemented in other, future studies to widely examine the role of other factors in preservation.
Name Keiffer Acoba Gender Male School name Kings Park High School School city Kings Park Category Physics Project title The Development of a Program for Automated Verification of Higher-Order Harmonic Polylogarithms for Fast Energy Evolutions of Parton Distribution Functions Summary The study of particle physics can give an insight into the nature of the universe at large, despite what it may seem. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a branch of particle physics that studies the subatomic particles of quarks and gluons, which make up commonly known particles such as the proton and neutron. Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) are used in studying QCD, with more accurate PDFs allowing for better QCD research. Currently, PDFs are best represented with Harmonic Polylogarithms (HPLs), whose functions almost directly correspond to those of PDFs. This project developed computer software that would numerically evaluate HPLs and output both these computations and the time it took to compute them. The former output can prove useful in PDF calculations. The latter output was analyzed statistically. It was found that the GiNaC algorithm is inefficient at evaluating high-input HPLs. This information can foster further HPL research, accelerating particle physics theories.
Name Emily Cruz Gender Female School name Manhasset High School School city Manhasset Category Environmental Science Project title Human Impact on Hudson and Gateway Estuaries Summary Hurricanes Harvey and Maria have caused a huge amount of damage much of which could've been prevented if the coastal wetlands had not been destroyed due to coastal developments. Coastal wetlands are vital to protecting against storm surges. For this reason it is necessary to understand human impacts on the marshes to inform marsh preservation policy. The analyzed marshes include: Alley Creek, Pelham, Piermont, and Iona. In testing for marsh health, a cylindrical (1m tube) of sediment was removed from the locations. All the areas showed a decrease in the carbon content caused by human coastal interferences. Carbon content is caused by the number of animals and present in the marsh; greater carbon content, is indicative of more plants and animals and greater protection against storm surges. Ultimately, it is necessary to study the marshes to ensure that they are prosperous, and can protect against flooding from storm surges.
Name Scott Soifer Gender Male School name North Shore Hebrew Academy High School School city Great Neck Category Engineering Project title The Heat Free Car: Vehicular Heatstroke Prevention System (Second-Generation Prototype) Summary Today, cars can park themselves, change lanes themselves and even slow down and brake themselves. An important thing they can not do is save children from dying of heatstroke when left unattended inside. My patented device, the Vehicular Heatstroke Prevention Device (US Patent No.: 9,796,371), can and will save lives. This device has the ability to detect a child in a car (by recognizing an increase in carbon dioxide levels), monitor the cabin temperature, and automatically turn on the engine and air conditioning. Emergency personnel and caregivers can be alerted through an interactive phone application. The app provides GPS coordinates, directions, and real-time information to emergency personnel. Each year, dozens of children needlessly die from heatstroke when left alone within a hot vehicle. My invention has the potential to prevent these unfortunate deaths.
Name Audrey O'Brien Gender Female School name North Shore High School School city Glen Head Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title The Relationship Between Micro-albumin Protein to Creatinine Ratio and Serum Creatinine Concentration in Kidney Function: A Novel Approach to Predicting Postoperative Kidney Function Summary This study aimed to assess two markers (microalbumin:creatinine ratio and serum creatinine) that indicate kidney function before and after receiving surgery for a renal tumor. Specifically, this study aimed to see if high levels of microalbumin:creatinine before surgery was indicative of high serum creatinine concentrations 6 months or more after surgery. 271 patients participated in this study, and after analyzing the data, I found that microalbumin:creatinine before surgery was strongly correlated with serum creatinine levels after surgery. Now we can estimate a patient's long-term kidney function after surgery using a formula that can extrapolate postoperative serum creatinine levels. The serum creatinine value determined can be plugged into the CKD-EPI equation to determine patients' kidney function including other factors. Doctors can use this formula to better decide treatment choice. If a patient is at increased risk for renal dysfunction, a less severe treatment option would be favorable.
Name Caitlin Maley Gender Female School name Paul D. Schreiber High School School city Port Washington Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title The Impact of Race on Victim Blaming in Sexual Assault Cases on College Campuses Summary The present study aims to see if people's perceptions and tendencies to blame victims in sexual assault cases is dependent upon the race of the victim. It was hypothesized that people would blame victims of a minority race more harshly than those of Caucasian descent. To test this hypothesis two surveys were created, which included four sexual assault scenarios. Participants then evaluated their perceptions of blame through a series of questions. The only differences between the two surveys was the name of the victim. In one copy the names were common Caucasian names, while the other contained common African American and Hispanic names. The results of the study showed that people did blame the victims of minority descent more harshly. This can lead to several changes within the field, because once these biases are understood and changed all sexual assault cases can be evaluated on an equal level.
Name Daniel Vieira Gender Male School name Plainview-Old Bethpage John F. Kennedy High School School city Plainview Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title A Novel Study on Social Comparison Processes and the Pratfall Effect in the Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Domain Summary Social comparison theory states that people make self-evaluations by seeing how they (stack up) in comparison to others. Therefore, if you were to call yourself tall, that would imply that you find yourself taller than others. The present study sought to see if such comparisons occur in the HRI domain. However, such self-evaluations can produce negative effects.
Name Spencer Lazar Gender Male School name Roslyn High School School city Roslyn Heights Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title Worth a Shot? The Impact of Various Public Health Messages on People's Intent to Get Vaccinated Summary Research has found that a variety of factors can impact a person's decision to get vaccinated. I investigated the effects of different types of public health appeals (including self-interest, altruism, and social norms) on participants' intent to get vaccinated and perceived risk of the disease. Three hundred and nine participants were randomly assigned to view one of four flyers containing a public health message, and then asked to report their vaccine hesitancy and risk perception. I found that there was a statistically significant difference between participants who were shown the social norms message and the altruistic message in terms of both vaccine hesitancy and risk perception. Those who saw the altruistic message demonstrated the lowest levels of vaccine hesitancy and risk perception. My findings suggest that appeals to altruism, may have the potential to boost vaccination rates, if used by policy makers and government officials when designing public health campaigns.
Name Vincent Yao Gender Male School name Roslyn High School School city Roslyn Heights Category Medicine and Health Project title The Novel Isolation and Structural Analysis of Hyperoside from Perilla frutescens and its Therapeutic Molecular Mechanisms against Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Summary As the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a lethal and prevalent form of cancer. In the United States, nearly 150,000 cases of CRC are diagnosed annually with approximately 50,000 deaths. However, recent studies revealed how the leaves of Perilla frutescens (PF), an herbal plant, are a potential candidate to treating cancers due to anti-cancerous activities exhibited by bioactive chemicals within the plant. In this study, I isolated a novel active ingredient -- hyperoside -- from PF through High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Afterwards, I ran experiments to determine how hyperoside targeted key aspects of CRC. Results revealed hyperoside could directly kill CRC, prevent its growth, and halt its spread while exhibiting minimal side effects. This study isolated and identified a new active chemical within PF and concluded hyperoside's effectiveness. Thus, its potential as a multipurpose therapeutic treatment for CRC is promising.
Name Sarah Adamo Gender Female School name Smithtown High School School city Smithtown Category Animal Sciences Project title Acetylcholine and Nicotine Potentiate Currents in Cells Isolated from the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Summary Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important components of the nervous system. Nematostella vectensis, sea anemone, is an important model system for studying the nervous system of Cnidarians. However, there are no reports of currents recorded from isolated Nematostella cells. In my study, I devised a method of isolating cells from Nematostella that can be used to characterize currents, and found evidence for direct activation of these currents by nicotinic agonists. The nervous system transmits information through electrical signals, which can be recorded at certain voltages. By recording these currents, I identified two types of currents: a linear and voltage-dependent current, which exhibits an increase in the presence of either the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or nicotine. The effect of nicotine was also dose dependent. My research demonstrates a novel and powerful way to explore the nervous system of Nematostella vectensis, leading to better understanding of how nicotinic receptors evolved into their present form.
Name Sydney Bracht Gender Female School name Smithtown High School East School city East Saint James Category Animal Sciences Project title A Reverse Genetic Approach to Identify Novel Regulators of Cell Invasive Behavior Summary In order to spread, cancer hijacks the mechanisms enabling the movement of cells across a membrane barrier separating tissues. This underlying process, called cell invasion, can also be observed in the worm species C. elegans when a unique reproductive cell, called the anchor cell, migrates through a membrane to begin the formation of a new reproductive structure. In this study, green fluorescence was added to a worm strain to better visualize the anchor cell and underlying cells for observation of the cell invasion process. Twenty-two genes associated with invasion were then individually knocked down and resulting physical characteristics were observed. Through this, the genes responsible for failure of cells to properly invade across the boundary membrane were identified. By looking at worm genes, we can make educated predictions about their human counterparts, potentially paving the way for future cancer studies.
Name Cindy Li Gender Female School name Smithtown High School East School city East Saint James Category Medicine and Health Project title The Role of Sts-1 and Sts-2 in ROS Response in Mononuclear Phagocytes Summary Fungal infections can be life-threatening for patients with weakened immune systems. Current treatments, however, have drawbacks, including harmful side effects and increasing trends of fungal resistance. In mice, suppressing two proteins results in more effective immune responses to certain fungi. To better understand these proteins, specific immune cells important in activating and regulating immune responses from regular mice and mice without the two proteins of interest were activated with various fungus strains and chemicals, and the strength of a specific immune response was measured and compared. It was found that activating one part of the immune cells and the presence of hair-like structures on fungi increased the immune response strength. Understanding the role of the proteins in mice may lead to greater comprehension of human immune responses to fungal infections. Fungal infections are a growing problem, so it is important to develop a better alternative to current treatments.
Name Shrey Thaker Gender Male School name Smithtown High School East School city East Saint James Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title The Role of miR-34a in Colorectal Cancer Racial Health Disparity Summary Cancer seemingly claims the lives of many people without subjectivity, or does it? African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from colon cancer than Caucasian Americans (CA). Factors contributing to this disparity may be revealed by investigating recently discovered small genetic molecules that can regulate cell proteins. This study assessed natural levels of proteins before the specific genetic molecule was inserted into the AA and CA cells. Natural molecule levels suggest that the genetic molecule is not fully working in AA cells as compared to CA cells. Future work will include measuring the effects of inserting the genetic fragments and analyzing trends will help further characterize the role of this genetic molecule. The current results contribute to the understanding of how this genetic molecule functions in different racial backgrounds of colon cancer and if this new approach to cancer treatment can work for racially diverse patients.
Name Caroline Smolensky Gender Female School name St. Anthony's High School School city South Huntington Category Bioengineering Project title Real-time Monitoring of Multi-Region Brain Norepinephrine Levels Using an Anatomically Conformal Microelectrode Array Summary Norepinephrine (NE) is a neurotransmitter and hormone produced and secreted by the adrenal gland. Similar to adrenaline, the release of NE acts as an anti-inflammatory. During incidents of TBI (traumatic brain injury), secondary injuries can also occur. In these extreme circumstances, the levels of NE released in the brain may serve to control or minimize these secondary injuries. The goal of this study is to design and develop a microelectrode sensor that can be implanted into three different regions of a rodent brain to measure in real-time, the levels of NE. The sensor head has a thickness less than a human hair. Yet, the sensor head contains four electrochemical sensors capable of detecting minute traces of NE with high sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor was successfully constructed, tested, and calibrated and was found to function effectively, as designed. The logical continuation of this study would be in vivo evaluations.
Name Justin Cohen Gender Male School name Syosset High School School city Syosset Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title Psychopathology in 9/11 Responders Exposed to Hurricane Sandy: Examining the Interactive Effects of Exposure and Resilience Summary World Trade Center (WTC) disaster responders were exposed to psychological trauma due to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. As a result, many continue to suffer from symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress which can worsen after exposure to subsequent traumatic events such as Hurricane Sandy. Preexisting data were obtained from a study group of anonymous WTC responders both before and after Hurricane Sandy. Statistical analyses concluded that higher levels of hurricane exposure were associated with increased symptoms of PTSD and distress following Sandy. It was also determined that 9/11 responders with high hurricane exposure levels who possessed increased adaptive coping skills prior to Sandy had lower distress symptoms post-Sandy. The results highlight the importance of adaptive coping skills in promoting resilience to psychological distress. Therefore, coping skills are an important therapeutic target for individuals at risk for exposure to trauma, such as disaster responders.
Name Monet Yuan Gender Female School name Syosset High School School city Syosset Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title Synthetic Lethality Assay of the PIM1 and PIM2 Genes Summary In past literature, the PIM1 gene was shown to be essential to cancer growth using a genetic engineering tool called RNA interference (RNAi). However, another tool, CRISPR/Cas9, challenged the claim that PIM1 is essential for cancer cell growth. Based on these results, a synthetically lethal relationship between PIM1 and PIM2, was hypothesized to exist. Synthetic lethality means that the deficit of two genes are necessary in order to cause cancer cell death, whereas the loss of only one causes no reaction, most likely because another gene can help compensate for the loss. The amount of cells with both PIM1 and PIM2 was measured over the course of 15 days. Since it was observed that an increasing amount of cells with both PIM1 and PIM2 died throughout the period of time, a synthetically lethal relationship is observed between the two genes.
Name John Li Gender Male School name The Wheatley School School city Old Westbury Category Engineering Project title Three Efficient Inventions That Work Together to Reduce the Time and Cost of Automobile Transmission Fluid and Filter Changes by 3/4th Summary Transmission fluid and filter changes usually cost greater than two hundred dollars, and require an hour. Inefficient design makes these common maintenance procedures expensive and slow, because of many unnecessary steps. Car owners have to wait a long time for maintenance and also pay high labor costs. These problems are solved by a combination of three inventions that are very simple for car manufacturers to adopt. The three inventions work together, to make transmission fluid and filter changes fast, inexpensive, and mess free. It is estimated that transmission fluid and filter changes will only cost 55 dollars and require 12 minutes, resulting in a 3/4th reduction in time and cost for car owners.
Name Emily Huang Gender Female School name Ward Melville High School School city East Setauket Category Environmental Science Project title A Novel Insight on the effect 1,1,1-trichlorethane Contamination has on the Pathophysiological Formation of Alzheimer's Disease Summary No specific causes of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have been pinpointed -- studies have only indicated which factors contribute to AD. I studied whether a groundwater contaminant, 1,1,1-trichlorethane (TCA) had an effect on the development of AD at the neuroimmune level. Immune tissue inflammation and neuronal cell death are common symptoms of AD, due to the buildup of a protein, amyloid beta (AB), which is toxic to neurons in large amounts. I tested if TCA could increase inflammation, kill nerve cells, and enhance AB's effects. I found TCA is pro-inflammatory and extremely toxic to nerve cells, can synergistically worsen AB toxicity in both animal and cell models, and can increase AB production at the genetic level. My results imply environmental pollutants, specifically TCA, contribute to the development of AD. Therefore, public health measures should be taken against groundwater contamination to ensure the health of the people and help combat AD.
Name Michael Lu Gender Male School name Ward Melville High School School city East Setauket Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title MicroRNAs Contribute to Angiotensin II-mediated Electrical Remodeling of the Heart Summary The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a major role in regulating cardiovascular function. In response to stretch of the heart during contraction, local RAS and its effector molecule, Angiotensin II (Ang II), are activated causing electrical remodeling: alterations of membrane currents, prolongation of the action potential, and increased contractility. Differential expression of microRNAs (miRNA) were hypothesized to contribute to the signaling cascade for Ang II-mediated electrical remodeling. Subsequently, rat left ventricular tissue samples were treated with either Ang II or Losartan. Total RNA was extracted from the samples and miRNA microarray analysis was performed to examine differences in miRNA expression. Only two candidates, miR-385-5p and miR-301a-3p, were found to exhibit the exact expression patterns as membrane currents modulated by Ang II. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-382-5p and miR-301a-3p contribute to Ang II-mediated electrical remodeling and provide potential targets to study heart failure mechanisms and therapeutic applications.
Name Daniel Kim Gender Male School name William A. Shine Great Neck South High School School city Great Neck Category Bioengineering Project title Quantifying the Affinity of Mutated scFv's in Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for GD2-Targeted Treatment of Neuroblastoma Summary The low survival rate of high-risk neuroblastoma necessitates more potent treatment methods. One possibility is chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), which have been shown to enhance immune cell function. Recently, a CAR made using an antibody for neuroblastoma cells showed promise in targeting neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to enhance the efficacy of this CAR using a mutated version of the antibody, which has been found to have increased binding affinity to the antigen of neuroblastoma. The rate at which the antigen dissociated from the CARs was measured, and demonstrated that the mutant CAR had eleven-fold stronger binding. An assay was used to measure the extent of killing of neuroblastoma cells by immune cells with these CARs. This data showed 2-3 fold increases in killing. These findings suggest that use of the mutant CAR in T-cells may have potential for more potent treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma.
Name Eric Kuang Gender Male School name William A. Shine Great Neck South High School School city Great Neck Category Space Science Project title Markov Chain Monte Carlo Testing of Cosmological Constant and the Limits of Cosmography with the Union2.1 Supernova Compilation Summary Cosmic expansion was discovered by Edwin Hubble in 1929 and confirmed to be accelerating in 1998. This acceleration implies the existence of a repulsive force counteracting gravity, exerted by a mysterious form of energy. It is often denoted as dark energy and hypothesized to determine the fate of the universe. This project analyzed data obtained from distance measurements of astronomical events with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, a statistical sampling algorithm, implemented in Java, to characterize the overall motion of the universe. Through this, dark energy's properties can be derived, which allow for testing its consistency with a particular dark energy model cosmological constant. The results remained consistent with previous studies and the cosmological constant model, with significantly reduced uncertainties of all cosmological parameters compared to prior estimates. This demonstrated MCMC's ability to tighten the range of parameter estimations and dark energy's close adherence to the cosmological constant model.
Name Cindy Wang Gender Female School name William A. Shine Great Neck South High School School city Great Neck Category Physics Project title Observation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect in the Quark-Gluon Plasma Produced in Au+Au Collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Summary High energy collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) allow physicists to create a hot, dense state of nuclear matter called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). As the collisions are known to generate large magnetic fields, Quantum Chromodynamics predicts the manifestation of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in the QGP. CME is the generation of an electric current along a magnetic field induced by an anomaly resulting in a charge separation along the magnetic field. The anomalous physics embodied in CME makes its detection in the QGP significant. Particle data collected at RHIC was used to construct a new mathematical function that measures a CME driven charge separation signal. This function produced results that provide evidence for CME in the QGP as well as a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum anomaly, allowing for an essential step toward a more fundamental understanding of QCD and properties of the QGP.
Name Michelle Xing Gender Female School name William A. Shine Great Neck South High School School city Great Neck Category Environmental Science Project title Direct Functionalization of Algal Nanocellulose to Enhance Biosorption for Lead(II) Remediation Summary Lead contamination of drinking water has become a serious and prevalent issue that calls for environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient lead removal methods to be developed. In the past decade, there has been much focus on biosorption using algae -- low-cost and abundant worldwide. To enhance this inherent ability, two different methods, TEMPO-mediated oxidation and nitric acid oxidation, were used to introduce negatively charged carboxyl groups onto the surface of the algal fibers, attracting positively charged lead ions (Pb2+). This study found that both methods produced 6-carboxycellulose nanofibers and that the resulting fibers were successful in removing lead from contaminated water. Of the two methods used, nitric acid oxidation was determined to harbor more potential for real-world application because it uses fewer chemicals, fewer steps, and requires less energy. Therefore, oxidized algal nanofibers are a promising solution to lead contamination and can mitigate the severe public health issue that lead poses for society.
Name Bradford Lin Gender Male School name Lawrenceville School School city Lawrenceville, NJ (lives on LI Category Earth and Planetary Project title Evaluating the effects of atmospheric aerosol loading on surface radiation and cloud microphysical properties over the Hawaiian Islands Summary Aerosols are known to produce cooling effects by scattering and reflecting sunlight. However, they are not as widely studied as other residents in the atmosphere such as greenhouse gases, and their exact effect on Earth's climate is still unknown. Recent climate models have not fully incorporated the effects of aerosols, and this impedes a better understanding of climate change. Because aerosols scatter and reflect sunlight, they also affect solar energy production. This study sought to elucidate the effects of aerosols. This study investigated the effects of aerosols from the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. Volcanic smog, or vog, is made up of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols. Using solar data and vog forecast data, it was determined that vog decreased solar radiation reaching Earth's surface by over 25%. Then, by analyzing satellite data, it was determined that that clouds affected by vog were more reflective and produced stronger atmospheric cooling effects.
Name Alexa Asch Gender Female School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title Sigma 1 Receptor Mediates IL-24 Induced Cancer Apoptosis through Lipid Raft Formation: an in vitro and in silico approach Summary Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a protein that regulates immune responses. Another protein, Sigma-1 Receptor (Sig-1R) mediates IL-24 when IL-24 causes cancer cell death. The molecular mechanisms and binding interactions were investigated using experimental research and computational modeling. A new methodology was developed, combining computational modeling based on energy, size, and affinity (inherent tendency of proteins to bind), with tests to determine the concentration of living cells and to highlight areas of lipid rafts. It was determined that IL-24 induces cancer cell death in the absence of certain substances called Sig-1R agonists and the formation of lipid rafts is necessary for this to occur. These results are crucial to developing more effective cancer treatment, including personalized precision therapy and combined drug therapies, and ensuring safety of healthy cells. Other researchers have not succeeded in this due to a lack of sufficiently deep insight, which my new methodology now provides.
Name Philippe Baron Gender Male School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Chemistry Project title Redefining Protein Stability with the First Adequate Model for Secondary Structure Calculations Summary This project focuses on evaluating the accuracy of current protein modeling software, and using that software to find information about how protein stability. To accomplish these goals, the Snow Flea Antifreeze protein (sfAFP) was used as it has a very unusual structure. The structure goes against the classical properties of stable proteins, as this protein's structure theoretically leads to instability. The protein modeling equations were created based on (ordinary) proteins that follow classical properties, so initially the accuracy of the ff14SB force field was tested. Molecular dynamics simulations were then conducted, where the simulation was set up to have a minimal effect on protein structure. The simulation didn't create any new structures; thus, the protein force field is accurate. Therefore, this model can be applied to further simulations, revealing the origins of protein stability. This can be applied to diseases involving proteins to with a similar structure, like collagen.
Name David Carter Gender Male School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Earth and Planetary Project title Responsiveness of Mid-Cretaceous Climate to Perturbations in Ocean Heat Transports and CO2 Concentration Summary The current understanding of Modern climate has been developed over the past 40 years by studying climate models, which have been fine-tuned to simulate our climate as accurately as possible. It is also important for these models to accurately simulate other climates, such as that of the Cretaceous hot-house, 100 million years ago. During the Cretaceous, there was no ice at the poles, but temperatures at the equator were not that much hotter than they are today. The simplest way to simulate this kind of climate is to increase the amount of heat transported from the equator to the poles by the oceans. My research shows that simulations with artificially increased heat transports produce a climate similar to that of the Cretaceous. However, dynamic ocean models are unable to reproduce the same level of heat transports. This indicates a possible bias in current models against warmer climates, such as Cretaceous.
Name Tainon Chen Gender Male School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Medicine and Health Project title Estrogen Receptor Beta-1 and its isoform Estrogen Receptor Beta-2 as novel therapeutic targets for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Summary This project explored the role of the proteins Estrogen Receptor-B 1 (ER Beta 1) and Estrogen Receptor-Beta 2 (ER Beta 2) in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas (NSCLC). Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma is the most prevalent type of lung cancer, and is highly resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Some cancers stop expressing ER Beta1 and start expressing ER Beta 2, which leads to increased radiation resistance and an increase in metastasis. NSCLC cells were measured for expression of ER Beta 1, ER Beta 2, and metastasis-associated genes. This was repeated after removing ER Beta 2. Finally, ER Beta 1 was reintroduced into NSCLC cells without ER Beta 2, which were irradiated alongside cells with ER Beta 2 but no ER Beta 1. It was found that ER Beta 2 is responsible for regulating metastasis in NSCLC, as metastasis-based genes are expressed when ER Beta 2 is present, but much less when it is absent. Reintroduction of ER Beta 1 into NSCLC cells increased radiation sensitivity. Therefore, radioresistance of NSCLC can potentially be overcome by reactivating ER Beta 1 expression.
Name Jennifer Cheung Gender Female School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Behavioral and Social Sciences Project title Executive Functions Predicting Learning Outcomes in Science & English Language Tasks Summary Executive functions (EF) refer to mental processes that help us to plan, complete, and prioritize tasks. These skills are essential to the positive development of a child and are the underlying processes of learning. However, the question that remains is, what specific executive functions are related to what types of learning tasks? In this study, we investigated how a science simulation exploration task uses EF skills and whether a learner's' level of EF can predict their comprehension level. Results showed that specific EF skills could predict outcomes on science and English tasks. This study provides empirical evidence for the importance of developing EF skills in school and furthered our understanding of the kinds of tasks that tap into executive function skills.
Name Quincy Edwards Gender Male School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Engineering Project title Fuzzy Control with Fuzzy Inputs for Smart DC Microgrid Energy Management Summary Microgrids, or small networks of renewable energy sources and energy storage units, are the future of how we consume power. Microgrids have wide-ranging benefits, from being able to operate in an islanded mode in case of a blackout or being able to supplement the power taken from the general power grid in order to reduce load and prevent blackouts in the first place. In my paper, a method for controlling the storage units of a microgrid is proposed that utilizes fuzzy control with fuzzy inputs.
Name Nusrath Jahan Gender Female School name Bronx High School of Science School city Bronx Category Cellular and Molecular Biology Project title The Underlying Mechanism of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma in Relation to Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Activity and Histone H3K27M Summary Nucleosomes consist of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins. Histone modifications, such as methylation or acetylation, cause changes to nucleosome positioning, altering chromatin structure to repress or activate gene expression. Histone H3 is methylated on lysine 27 (H3K27me), a repressive mark, by PRC2. Reduced PRC2 activity is observed in certain cancers, including the pediatric brain tumor DIPG. 80% of DIPG is associated with heterozygosity for histone H3K27M mutation. The role of PRC2 and H3K27M in DIPG is not fully understood. To further investigate, PRC2 was quantified and PRC2 activity compared in cells expressing normal histone H3 versus mutant H3K27M. H3K27M cells had a less active state of PRC2. H3K27M protein was present in excess of PRC2 protein in H3K27M DIPG cells, and associated with decreasing normal H3K27me levels and increasing PRC2 instability. This suggests a role for PRC2 complex instability leading to PRC2 inhibition in DIPG pathogenesis.

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