The Environmental Protection Agency has asked water companies above a certain size to monitor water samples for 28 contaminants that are not now regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Here are the results of 28,092 tests on Long Island in the most recent round of testing. The government has set target limits on 20 of the substances and this database indicates where those limits were exceeded and where they were not. Another eight substances have no limit set and the database indicates where those were detected as all. In many tests, the substances were not detectable above a minimum level. Aqua NY- Sea Cliff, Aqua NY and Long Island American Water Corp. are now known as New York American Water. Amounts listed are in parts per billion (PPB). This database was posted on Jan. 9, 2017.
Chlorate: Can cause anemia and nervous system problems in children. Used as a disinfectant, it prevents the body from absorbing iodine, important to the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. Prolonged exposure above the level could lead to adverse health effects.
Cobalt: Naturally-occurring element found in the earth's crust and at low concentrations in seawater, and in some surface and ground water; cobaltous chloride was formerly used in medicine and as a germicide. Varying amounts of exposure above the level could lead to adverse health effects.
PFOS: Surfactant or emulsifier; used in fire-fighting foam, circuit board etching acids, alkaline cleaners, floor polish, and as a pesticide active ingredient for insect bait traps; U.S. manufacture of PFOS phased out in 2002; however, PFOS still generated incidentally. Prolonged exposure above the level could lead to adverse health effects.
1,4-dioxane:Possible carcinogen that attacks the nasal cavity, kidney and liver. A clear liquid that dissolves in water and is used primarily as a manufacturing solvent, although it can also be found in personal care items such as soap. Of 1,062 tests nationwide that exceeded the level, 221, or 20 percent, were on Long Island. Prolonged exposure above the level could lead to one additional cancer case per 1 million population.
1,2,3-trichloropropane:Used as an ingredient in paint, varnish remover, solvents and degreasing agents. Prolonged exposure above the level could lead to one additional cancer case per 1 million population.
Chromium: Naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants and soil, it is used for making steel. Acute animal tests have shown chromium (III) to have moderate toxicity from oral exposure.
Strontium: Naturally occurring element used commercially in faceplates for CRT televisions. Exposure to prolonged stable strontium can lead to impaired bone grown in children.
Vanadium: Naturally occurring compound used in the production of steel, it has been linked to nausea, mild diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
1,1-dichloroethane: 1,1-Dichloroethane is a solvent used in the manufacture of the solvent TCE. It is also used in the manufacture of plastic wrap, adhesives, and synthetic fiber. The EPA has determined that 1,1-dichloroethane is a possible human carcinogen, although the Department of Health and Human Services has not evaluated its carcinogenic potential.
17-beta-estradiol: Listed in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens in 1985 as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
Estrone: Estrogenic hormone naturally produced in the human body; and used in veterinary and human pharmaceuticals.
Equilin: Estrogenic hormone derived from horses; and used in pharmaceuticals.
Bromomethane: Occurs as a gas, and used as a fumigant on soil before planting, on crops after harvest, on vehicles and buildings, and for other specialized purposes.
Halon 1011: Used as a fire-extinguishing fluid, an explosive suppressant, and as a solvent in the manufacturing of pesticides.
Chloromethane: Used as foaming agent, in production of other substances, and byproduct that can form when chlorine is used to disinfect drinking water. It is a halogenated alkane.
1,3-butadiene: Alkene. Used in rubber manufacturing and occurs as a gas.
Estriol: Estrogenic hormone naturally produced in the human body; and used in veterinary and human pharmaceuticals.
Molybdenum: Naturally-occurring element found in ores and present in plants, animals and bacteria; commonly used form molybdenum trioxide used as a chemical reagent.
PFOA: Perfluorinated aliphatic carboxylic acid; used for its emulsifier and surfactant properties in or as fluoropolymers (such as Teflon), fire-fighting foams, cleaners, cosmetics, greases and lubricants, paints, polishes, adhesives and photographic films.
17-alpha-ethynylestradiol: Listed in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens in 1985 as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
HCFC-22: Used as a refrigerant, as a low-temperature solvent, and in fluorocarbon resins, especially tetrafluoroethylene polymers. It is chlorofluorocarbon and occurs as a gas.
Hexavalent chromium: Used in chrome-plating, dyes, pigments, tanning leather and preserving wood, it can cause lung cancer, stomach tumors and skin ulcers. The government has set no threshold for dangerous exposure. It was detected in 1,247 tests on Long Island.
PFNA: Manmade chemical; used in products to make them stain, grease, heat and water resistant.
PFHpA: Manmade chemical; used in products to make them stain, grease, heat and water resistant.
PFHxS: Manmade chemical; used in products to make them stain, grease, heat and water resistant.
4-androstene-3,17-dione: Steroidal hormone naturally produced in the human body and used as an anabolic steroid and a dietary supplement.
PFBS: Manmade chemical; used in products to make them stain, grease, heat and water resistant.
Testosterone: Androgenic steroid naturally produced in the human body; and used in pharmaceuticals.
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